Category: Europe

Europe – physical overview
Europe is a highly indented continent with large inland seas and long coasts. On geological old shields, which are now leveled to form wide-ranging landscapes, mountains were folded in three phases. Depending on age, these have already been eroded to a greater or lesser extent in the course of the earth’s history or have been transformed into low mountain ranges by fracture tectonics.

NORTHERN EUROPE
In Scandinavia, north-south oriented geological structures (supercontinent and folded Caledonian mountains) overlap with a climatic zoning from north to south and a differentiation according to altitude. The mountains of the Skanden in the west and north-west face the partial basins of the Baltic Sea and largely flat landscapes in the east (southern Finland) and south (Jutland, southern Sweden). The Scandi are in parts high mountain character and carry glaciers. Between the Scandinavia and the Baltic Sea there is an incline facing northwest and southeast, which is particularly noticeable in northern Sweden due to the parallel course of the rivers.

The Scandinavian region was covered by inland ice during the last glacial periods. Accordingly, the surface forms on the coasts, in valleys and in the plains show various traces of glacial and periglacial formation. The abundance of lakes is also due to it.

The island of Iceland occupies a special position not only because of its northern location (tundra vegetation). The mid-Atlantic ridge runs through the island and causes active tectonics and volcanism (geysers; see 106.1).

THE ALPINE REGION
The Alps are part of the young alpine fold mountain belt. As high mountains, they mark a border between Central and Southern Europe, both climatically and historically. While they are sharply delimited to the Po Valley in the south, they have a relatively wide foreland in the north, the border of which is marked by the Danube and Aare, for example. The combination of massifs and folded and shifted rock ceilings is characteristic of the Alpine region. The former emerged from the thresholds of the Geosynklinal Sea, the latter from its troughs. The western Alps are built up from massifs such as the Mont Blanc massif. In Switzerland they form two zones that are separated by the long valley of the Rhone (including the Aare massif, the Gotthard massif). The Eastern Alps consist of three mountain ranges: the Northern Limestone Alps, the Central Alps (Tauern) and the Southern Limestone Alps; they are separated by longitudinal valleys. For more information about the continent of Europe, please check payhelpcenter.com.

Best Travel Time and Climate for Åland

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