Denmark. Immigration and refugee issues continued to dominate Danish social debate in 2001. The European Commission Against Racism and Intolerance claimed in a report that Denmark is characterized by an anti-Muslim climate, which leads to intolerance, prejudice and discrimination in the labor and housing markets. The report received harsh criticism mainly from the Danish People’s Party, but also Foreign Minister Mogens Lykketoft rejected the conclusions.
In August, a working group appointed by Interior Minister Karen Jespersen submitted a report urging immigrants to join Danish values. Fundamental rights such as freedom of religion and expression should be respected, the group also pointed out that i. forced marriage is not compatible with Danish values and that gender equality must be respected. The report, which received criticism from ethnic minorities, also showed that integration works very poorly in Denmark. In particular, the high unemployment rate among immigrants was highlighted.
- Abbreviationfinder: lists typical abbreviations and country overview of Denmark, including bordering countries, geography, history, politics, and economics.
Debate also surrounded the new Israeli ambassador who came to Copenhagen in August. Critics demanded that Carmi Gillon be rejected because he led Israel’s security service and was then responsible for torture, or what he himself refers to as “limited physical coercion,” in interrogating Palestinians. The debate brought diplomatic cold between Denmark and Israel.
Business and the opposition were very critical of the Social Democrat-led government’s budget proposals for the coming years. contained increased environmental fees. The government also promised a significant extension of parental insurance. The draft budget was submitted at a time when the Danish economy was working relatively well. But signs of deterioration came in August, and despite elections waiting, the government was forced to tone down its promised promises under the influence of unrest following the September 11 terrorist attacks.
Hard anti-Islamic statements by the Danish People’s Party after the terrorist act were criticized by all other parties in the Folketing. At the same time, the government’s immigration and refugee policy was criticized by the Danish People’s Party, the Venstre and the Conservative. They believed that there will be too many immigrants for Denmark to be able to integrate them.
The government also ended in blustery weather as Denmark provided protection to an Iraqi officer accused of war crimes. Several serious criminal persons had also been granted residence permits in Denmark. On the other hand, the government’s proposal for stricter laws against support for terrorism was met by legal warnings that certain parts threatened legal certainty.
The prime minister announced the parliamentary elections until November 20, when elections for municipalities and county councils (county) were also held. The short electoral movement received hateful and xenophobic elements and was mostly about the tightening of immigrant and refugee policy. The larger parties approached the Danish People’s Party with demands for reduced immigration of relatives to those who have been granted a residence permit in Denmark.
The election gave a purely bourgeois majority in the Parliament. The Left Party became the largest party with 56 seats, an increase of 14, and the Danish People’s Party more than doubled from 9 to 22 seats. Conservative People’s Party retained its 16 seats. The Social Democrats lost 11 seats and ended 52.
Prime Minister Poul Nyrup Rasmussen resigned and succeeded Venstres leader Anders Fogh Rasmussen. This formed a coalition between the Left and the Conservative, whose former leader Per Stig Møller became Foreign Minister. The new minority government became dependent on the Danish People’s Party’s support in the Folketing and announced some tightening in the refugee and immigration policy.
Continued loss of sovereignty
Foreign and military politics, through the 90’s, the government has put in place a policy that is increasingly closer to the United States. Commissioned by the United States, at the beginning of 1997, the government was tasked with criticizing the human rights situation in China during the annual general meeting of the UN Commission on Human Rights. The United States did not want to criticize itself, as its trade with China would then suffer harm. Instead, Denmark got the job, China cooled the relationship and the Danish business community missed important orders, but in the summer of Denmark, in the summer of 97, for the first time visited by the US president who would like to thank for the service.
During NATO’s war against Yugoslavia in the spring of 1999, Denmark was fully on the United States, leading for the first time in 300 years to war against another country. There was a long way from the Social Democratic NATO policy to the footnote policy in the mid-1980’s.
In relation to the EU, there was a continued transfer of sovereignty – especially since the adoption of the internal market in 1986. In December 1992, Denmark received four exceptions to the Maastricht agreement (which has not yet been legally tested), which the government has for several years been in in which the issue of EMU (economic-monetary cooperation) was put to a referendum in September 2000. The Social Democracy therefore initiated an intense schooling offensive within its own ranks in the fall of 1999 to prepare for the lifting of the EMU reservation.
In the absence of an independent political project, the government increasingly subscribed to the US-NATO militaristic policy.
Copenhagen – history
A number of Stone Age settlements are known, including submarine settlements from Kongemose culture by the Freeport and off the coast of Amager.
Køpmannæhafn or simply Hafn seems to have emerged as a small seasonal trading place in connection with the large herring fishery in the second half of the 1000’s. The location at the entrance to the important trading area in the Baltic Sea, the good natural harbor and the fertile hinterland gave the place the opportunity to develop into a rich and increasingly important market town from the 13th century onwards.
The oldest written source mentioning Copenhagen is a letter from Pope Urban III from 1186. In this it is confirmed with the authority of the pope that Absalon has received the castle Hafn with all its associated estates, including the city of Hafn, by King Valdemar I the Great, and that Absalon has decided that after his death this estate will go to Roskilde Bispestol. Almost at the same time, Saxo says that Absalon built a castle at Hafn 1167-71.
Archaeological research indicates that the trading post, which was located between the current Rådhuspladsen and Gammeltorv-Nytorv, originated in the 1000’s, and that fishing took place from the site. House plots with clay floors and excavated pillars have been found, which probably belonged to the buildings in early Copenhagen. Recent archaeological studies in connection with the metro construction, at Rådhudpladsen 2011-12, indicates that Copenhagen already in the beginning of the 1100’s, possibly. previously, has been an important and significant city and regional hub in the Sound.
The trading post, which was laid out on the low, wet salt marshes, was fortified with violence and grave in the first half of the 12th century. The early medieval coastline was originally uneven. It has been located in the west just south of the later Løngangsstræde, while in the east it has been proven to be north of Kompagnistræde-Rådhusstræde. Before 1177 the town got a church, Skt. Clemens, presumably built at the instigation of Absalon.
No later than around 1200, the fortifications of the former city were abandoned, as a new main church, Our Lady, was built on a low hill NE of the city. In the following decades, the market town grew up around the church and under the shelter of the castle. The parish churches Skt. Peder and Skt. Nikolaj was built, and the large Gray Brothers Monastery was established in 1238. Archaeological research in the 1990’s at Kgs. Nytorv suggests that this new town was probably from the first time surrounded by a fortification. It has thus been a planned city on the part of the bishop.
In Bishop Jakob Erlandsen’s city court from 1254, which almost has the character of a contract between the bishop and the citizens, the latter gets grazing rights for their cattle south of Rosbækken at present Tuborg against the obligation to defend the town.
In 1259 Christoffer I occupied Copenhagen, but in the same year the bishop’s vassal, Prince Jarimar II of Rügen, attacked the city. Bishop Jens Krag issued a new city court in 1294, which clearly specified the bishop’s rights and the duties of the citizens, especially with regard to obedience to the bishop and the duty to lead a moral and moral life.
In the 14th century, Copenhagen benefited from the large herring markets that took place every autumn in Skanør and eventually also in Dragør. From the end of 1200-t. the citizens were organized in a city council consisting of 4-6 councilors and a number of mayors. Those concerned were appointed by the bishop, later by the king, among the merchants of the town, and the appointment was usually valid for life. The bishop’s representative was the town bailiff, who was also a judge in the district court, where criminal cases were decided, while mayors and councils made up the council chamber, where civil cases were negotiated.
As a result of Valdemar 4. Atterdag’s disputes with the Hanseatic League, these conquered the city in 1368. A large part of the city was burned, and the castle was systematically demolished. After the end of the war and Valdemar Atterdag’s death, the Bishop of Roskilde left approx. 1377 prepare a comprehensive land register of the bishop’s properties at that time. Large areas to the north (Rosengården) within the wall were still undeveloped at that time, and there were many deserted grounds in the western neighborhoods. The vast majority of houses were built of half-timbering, but there were also a number of stone houses along the main streets and squares.
Shortly after his accession to the throne, Erik VII of Pomerania in 1416 withdrew Copenhagen from the Bishop of Roskilde without much resistance. The king used Copenhagen as part of his struggle for Baltic rule.
On the initiative of Christian I, the University of Copenhagen was established in 1479. He also had the old Holy Spirit House transformed from approx. 1290 to a Holy Spirit Monastery.
The great upheavals as a result of the Reformation caused Copenhagen in the 1500’s, was besieged twice. The town had remained faithful to Christian II, which is why in 1523 it was besieged by the forces of the Council of State and Frederik I under Duke Christian (3rd), to whom it eventually had to surrender. After the end of the war, Copenhagen’s fortifications were greatly modernized by the construction of a number of massive towers to strengthen the city wall.
The new fortress quickly came into use, when Copenhagen in alliance with Malmö and Lübeck during the Count’s Feud once again clung to Christian 2. and refused to recognize Christian 3. Under the leadership of Count Christoffer of Oldenburg and Mayor Ambrosius Bogbinder, the city resisted a long-standing siege from July 1535 to July 1536, when the completely starving city had to capitulate to Christian 3.
According to Countryaah, the population of Denmark in 2001 was 5,421,591, ranking number 110 in the world. The population growth rate was 0.300% yearly, and the population density was 127.7799 people per km2.