Nigeria Population

By | May 6, 2024

Population Distribution

As of 2023, the latest population of Nigeria is 214,028,302, based on our calculation of the current data from UN (United Nations).

Total population 214,028,302
Population growth rate 2.53%
Birth rate 36.90 births per 1,000 people
Life expectancy
Overall life expectancy 52.46 years
Men life expectancy 49.35 years
Women life expectancy 55.77 years
Age structure
0-14 years 42.45%
15-64 years 54.29%
65 years and above 3.26%
Median age 18.20 years
Gender ratio (Male to Female) 1.01
Population density 231.69 residents per km²
Urbanization 46.70%
approx. 430 ethnic groups: 21% Hausa and others Hamitic and Tschadohamitic ethnic groups (Kanuri, Tuareg) in the N, 21% Yoruba in the SW, 15% I (g) bo, 6% Ibibio and others in the SO, 2% Tiv in the SO and nomads (Fulbe)
Muslims 50%, Christians 40%, indigenous religions 10%
Human Development Index (HDI) 0.534
HDI ranking 158th out of 194

People in Nigeria

There will be around 195 million people in Nigeria in 2020. Nigeria is the country in Africa with the largest population. The population is still growing rapidly, namely by 2.5 percent per year. Half (50 percent) of Nigeria’s population lives in cities, the other half in rural areas.

Many peoples live in Nigeria. The largest group is formed by the Hausa and Fulani peoples who live in northern Nigeria and together make up 29 percent of the population. The Yoruba live in the southwest and are also at home in neighboring Benin. 21 percent of Nigerians are Yoruba. The Ibo (18 percent) live in the south.

Other peoples are the Ijaw in the south (10 percent), the Kanuri in the northeast (4 percent), the Ibibio in the southeast (3.5 percent) and the Tivom east (2.5 percent). Many other peoples are represented in small minorities.

Children in Nigeria

Each woman in Nigeria has an average of 5.4 children. This is very much. With us, each woman has an average of only 1.4 children. Children and young people in Nigeria make up a large proportion of the population. About half of the population is under 18 years old!

Infant mortality is 3.6 percent, child mortality 7.6 percent (in Germany it is 0.2 and 0.3 percent). That means: more than three out of 100 newborn children die, more than seven out of 100 do not celebrate their first birthday. The numbers have fallen in recent years, but they are still very high.

Languages in Nigeria

514 languages ​​are spoken in Nigeria! Nigeria was a British colony until 1960 and English was adopted and declared the official language when it became independent. So it is spoken in the administration and in the schools is taught in English. Most Nigerians are at least bilingual because the first thing they do is learn the mother tongue of their people.


The Hausa and most of the Fulbe speak the Hausa language. Hausa is also used as a commercial language and is therefore also spoken by other peoples in West and Central Africa. Besides English, Hausa is taught in primary schools. In Hausa, the pitch and length of the syllables change the meaning of the word. “He goes” means in Hausa: yanààtàfiyaa.

Hausa is one of the Chad languages. They are, in turn, a branch of the Afro-Asian languages ​​spoken throughout northern Africa (and western Asia). You can see their distribution on the map.

Hausa is mostly written with Latin letters, the letters that you also know. Four additional letters stand for sounds we don’t know. You can also write Hausa in Arabic script.

Yoruba and Igbo

The Yoruba, the second largest ethnic group in Nigeria and living in the southwest, speaks Yoruba. See also Benin under “People”. Igbo is spoken by many people in the southeast. Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba are the main languages ​​in Nigeria.

Religions in Nigeria

Religious conflicts between Muslims and Christians repeatedly lead to problems, conflicts and violent confrontations. The Hausa and Fulbe who live in the north of the country are traditionally of the Muslim faith. The peoples of the south are predominantly Christians.

The proportion of Muslims and Christians is about half of the population each. Officially, only a few people still adhere to the natural religions, but traditional beliefs often also play a major role among Muslims and Christians. Ancestor cult is practiced as well as the worship of fetishes.

In the north of Nigeria, Sharia, Islamic law, is practiced in 12 of the 36 federal states. Islamist groups like Boko Haram are also raging here. They want to use Islamic law throughout the country and are against Western education. There are repeated attacks on Christians and Christian churches. Thousands of people have already been killed in the attacks. The government has lost control of the north of the country.

Nigeria Overview

Nigeria, located in West Africa, is renowned for its rich cultural heritage, vibrant music scene, and diverse landscapes. Its capital city, Abuja, is a modern metropolis known for its impressive architecture and political significance as the seat of government. Nigeria is famous for its Nollywood film industry, one of the largest in the world, producing thousands of movies annually. The country’s cultural diversity is reflected in its cuisine, with dishes like jollof rice and suya enjoyed worldwide. Nigeria’s natural attractions include the Yankari National Park, home to elephants and hippos, and the idyllic beaches of Lagos, making it a diverse and fascinating destination.

  • Capital City: Abuja
  • Population: Approximately 211 million
  • Area: 923,768 square kilometers
  • Full Country Name: Federal Republic of Nigeria
  • Currency: Nigerian Naira (NGN)
  • Language: English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo, others
  • ISO Country Codes: NG, NGA

Bordering Countries of Nigeria

Nigeria is a country located in West Africa and it borders a number of other countries. To the northwest of Nigeria is Niger, which itself is located in the Sahel region of Africa. This region is marked by its arid climate and desert landscape. To the northeast of Nigeria lies Chad, another arid desert nation. To the east of Nigeria lies Cameroon, a country where both French and English are spoken. To the south of Nigeria lies Benin, which has a tropical climate and is home to diverse cultures and languages. Finally, to the west of Nigeria lies Togo, a small coastal nation with beautiful beaches and lush forests. All these countries have their own unique cultures, histories, languages and natural landscapes that make them special destinations for travelers looking to explore West Africa.


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