Italy Arts and Wines
Italian art, the art of the tribes living on the Apennine Peninsula from the beginning of the Iron Age in the 9th / 8th centuries. Century BC Until about 100 BC BC, in a broader sense also the art of the Etruscans, but not the art of the immigrant Greeks in the south and the Celts in the north. After the end of the Bronze Age in Italy (Apennine culture), the first clearly definable culture of the early Iron Age was the Villanova culture, which was derived from the Etruscan culture in the 8th century and along the Adriatic coast and partly in the interior as well as in the south-west (Campania) and in the north-west (Liguria) has been replaced by various more or less local cultures. The Adriatic trade, which has evidently been flourishing since the time of the Mycenaean culture, later the founding of Greek colonies in the south and the development of the Etruscan culture, influenced the peoples in different ways. In the process, imitations of Greek or Etruscan models emerged, but sometimes these suggestions were combined with native forms to create independent artistic achievements. Only Liguria is oriented towards Gaul (grave steles). The Estonian or Atestinal culture in the northeastern Po Valley up into the Alpine valleys (and apparently also with connections to the Hallstatt culture) produced bronze works of an oriental style, v. a. embossed situles, fibulae with pendants, chased bronze sheets, statuettes since the 4th century. In the Picenum (central Adriatic coastal region), grave steles with incised scenes (hunting, fights on land and water) were of particular importance in the 7th century, bronze and clay statuettes in the 6th century, which were also simplified and sketchy, but had a very immediate effect. Towards the end of the 6th century, monumental colossal sculptures (warriors from In the Picenum (central Adriatic coastal region), grave steles with incised scenes (hunting, fights on land and water) were of particular importance in the 7th century, bronze and clay statuettes in the 6th century, which were also simplified and sketchy, but had a very immediate effect. Towards the end of the 6th century, monumental colossal sculptures (warriors from In the Picenum (central Adriatic coastal region), grave steles with incised scenes (hunting, fights on land and water) were of particular importance in the 7th century, bronze and clay statuettes in the 6th century, which were also simplified and sketchy, but had a very immediate effect. Towards the end of the 6th century, monumental colossal sculptures (warriors from Capestrano; Head of the Grail from Numana, Ancona). Bronze brooches with pendants are typical. Motifs of the Picenian culture also spread in the interior of the country (bronze disks as parts of breastplates from Alfedena). In Apulia, in the 9th – 5th Century large bulbous pottery, since the 8th century with loosely distributed geometric patterns and partly with plastic jewelry. On anthropomorphic grave steles, detailed ornamentally embroidered robes with figural scenes, fibula decorations, hands, etc. scratched. At Lucera small moving bronzes from the 7th century came to light. In Campania the temples have been decorated with terracotta antefixes since the 6th century; In Capua, heavy seated pictures of mothers with initially a nappy-changing child were carved out of tuff stone, and in the 3rd century they then held six children in each arm. There are also clay sculptures (heads) and wall paintings in a drawing style, as well as in Lucania (Paestum) and Apulia. From Capua, Hellenistic influences spread into Italian art. a. from the early 3rd century until the fall of Capua as a result of the invasion Hannibal’s (218 BC); In the Apennines there were places of worship along the herd instincts. There were from the second half of the 4th century and the 3rd century BC. Bronze votive statuettes (Hercules, Mars) and terracotta heads found; Wooden votives were found particularly at Rocca San Felice. Models of early Roman art were used in the case of Campanian grave busts and heads as well as stone grave steles with relief (2nd and 1st centuries BC).
Italian wines. As the third largest wine-growing country in the world (behind Spain and France) with 769,000 hectares (2012), Italy produces around 50 million hectoliters of wine annually (2013: 45 million hectoliters), of which around 20 million hectoliters are exported, mainly to Germany, Great Britain and France as well as the USA; 800,000 hl are distilled to ethyl alcohol, the rest is used in the country. In 2012, the per capita consumption was 37.5 l). Most wines, 65% red wines, are table wines or wines with the designation Indicazione geografica tipica (abbreviation IGT), which corresponds to the country wine or Vin de Pays, due to the different basis of the Italian wine law, many serve as sparkling or vermouth base wines and blended wines (especially those of the south). There are a total of 332 names of origin with the designation in Italy Denominazione di origine controllata (abbreviation DOC) and the name Denominazione di origine controllata e garantita (DOCG), which also includes a quality guarantee, with more than 1,800 sub-names. 73 DOCG wines and 118 IGP wines form the top of the quality pyramid, including: Albana di Romagna, Asti, Barbaresco, Bardolino Superiore, Barolo, Brachetto d’Aqui, Brunello di Montalcino, Carmignano, Chianti, Chianti Classico, Franciacorta, Gattinara, Gavi, Ghemme, Montefalco Sagrantino, Nobile di Montepulciano, Ramandolo, Recioto di Soave Taurasi, Torgiano Riserva, Valtellina Superiore, Vermentino di Gallura and Vernaccia di San Gimignano.
According to educationvv, viticulture is practiced in all regions, but especially in Apulia, Sicily, Veneto and Emilia-Romagna, which together account for over 50% of the total wine production. Of the traditional indigenous grape varieties valued at over 2,000, only 20 are planted on a large scale (over 10,000 hectares). Among the most important local grape varieties are mainly Sangiovese (71,600 ha), Barbera (Piedmont, 20,500 ha), Negroamaro (Apulia, 3,100 ha), Montepulciano (34,800 ha), Primitivo (17,000 ha), Nero d’Avola 16,595 hectares, Trebbiano Romagnolo (12,000 hectares); Among the white grapes, there are above all the Sicilian grape variety Catarratto (34,800 ha), Trebbiano Toscano (55,000 ha) from central Italy and the white and red grape variety Malvasia (50,000 ha), as well as Moscato (Muscatel)), Glera (formerly Prosecco, in Veneto) as well as Albana (in Romagna now DOCG), Verdicchio (in the Marche) and in the south Greco. French grape varieties are also planted (including Cabernet, Merlot, Burgundy varieties, Sauvignon, Chardonnay). Many wines are made from a single variety, but typical are also wines made from different grape varieties (uvaggio; e.g. Chianti, Frascati, Bardolino, Orvieto). Most wines are fully fermented (an average of 11–13% alcohol); if they contain a maximum of 4 g / l residual sugar, they are referred to as “secco”, the sweet ones as “amabile”. Part of the wine is produced easily foaming (frizzante, z. B. Lambrusco), a portion is “gespritet” and provided some with vegetable flavors (eg. As vermouth, Vermouth), many are used to make sparkling wine (spumante; e.g. Prosecco).