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Turkey

Yearbook 2001

2001 TurkeyTurkey. The year was marked by Turkey's difficult economic crisis. The stock index collapsed in February after President Ahmet Necdet Sezer accused Prime Minister B邦lent Ecevit of protecting three corruption-suspected ministers in his government. $ 5 billion flowed out of the country in just a single day, February 19, and interest rates rose to 4,000% year-on-year. On February 22-23, the government was forced to drop the fixed exchange rate and allow the currency, the lira, to float. The value of the lira was devalued by almost 40%. According to Countryaah, the country's interior minister, Recep Önal, who was responsible for the country's economic policy, resigned and was succeeded by former World Bank economist Kemal Dervish, who on March 14 presented a plan for the country's economic recovery. The IMF (International Monetary Fund) granted loans worth $ 10 billion in addition to the 7.

Parliament voted on October 3 through 34 constitutional amendments dedicated to adapting Turkey to the EU. The death penalty may in the future only be used for persons convicted of terrorism or for certain other crimes committed during wartime. Radio and television broadcasts in Kurdish are allowed, but only if they are not considered a threat to the security of the nation. The military's influence in the National Security Council is limited and "state hostile statements" are no longer punishable. The changes would have to be approved by the president before they could take effect. On November 26, Parliament also voted in favor of legislative changes that equate married spouses legally. Those changes would come into force on 1 January 2002.

On June 22, the Constitutional Court banned the country's dominant opposition party, the Islamist Customs Party (Fazilet Partisi, FP), as it was deemed to undermine the country's secular order. Two of the party's more than 100 MPs lost their seats; the others could remain as independent members. Two new Islamist parties, the Joy Party (Saadet Partisi) and the White Party (Ak Partisi), were formed in the wake of FP.

A former police chief and a former intelligence officer were sentenced in February to six years in prison was for leading a criminal group with the aim of "creating panic in society". Twelve other suspects were sentenced to four years in prison were for involvement in the same business, the so-called Susurlik business in 1996, when the links between the country's political establishment and right-wing terrorists were revealed.

On April 22, 13 armed men took 120 hotel guests hostage at a hotel in Istanbul. The action was an attempt to draw the world's attention to the war in the Russian breakaway republic of Chechnya. The drama ended after twelve hours when the men gave up. No one was injured.

A total of 71 people were killed when two CASA CN-235 military aircraft crashed in Turkey on May 16 and 18, respectively.

2001 Turkey

1918 The collapse of the Ottoman Empire

During World War I, Turkey allied with the German Second Reich and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and with them it collapsed. The Ottoman Empire collapsed, and in the Arabian Peninsula and the Balkans many small autocratic states emerged. The ethnic minorities within Turkey's own borders were severely suppressed. In 1915, some 800,000 Armenians were killed during what has been called "the first century genocide".

The conditions imposed by the Treaty of Sèvres in 1920 were so humiliating that the military commander Mustafá Kemal (later known as Kemal Atatyrk) deposed Sultan Mohamed VI, who had signed the agreement, and launched a national liberation war. In the end, he obtained a new treaty signed in Lausanne in 1923. The country was exempt from having to pay war damages and the privileges granted to foreign traders (called "capitals") were revoked. On the other hand, the Bosphorus Strait and the Dardanelles were declared international waters, which should be navigable in peacetime by boats from all countries.

Atatyrk proclaimed the republic and introduced a new constitution. The government initiated a process of rapid modernization, church and state were separated, Friday as Muslim holidays were abolished, and Sunday was instead made public, the Arabic alphabet was replaced with the Latin, and the women were ordered to abandon the veil.

After Atatürk's death in 1938, the military retained its influence on Turkish politics. The government crushed the left-wing groups that had grown under the influence of the Russian Revolution and during the fight against neo-colonialism.

After World War II, the country became the United States' ally and was transformed into an anti-Soviet bastion. The United States built large military bases on Turkish territory, and gradually the nationalist military doctrine was replaced by the Pentagon's concept of "national security." Following the influence of the United States, Turkey introduced a multi-party system and provided incentives for foreign investment. Although the economy continued to depend on agricultural exports, there were no longer enough jobs in rural areas, and the young people therefore began to emigrate to the cities and countries of Western Europe - especially West Germany.

The Turkish military invasion of Cyprus in 1974 led to the island's division, prompting the withdrawal of Social Democratic Prime Minister Bulent Ecevit. Conservative Suleiman Demirel subsequently won over Ecevit, but the rivalry between both leaders hampered the formation of a stable government for the rest of the decade.

 

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