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Russia

Yearbook 2001

Russian Federation. Forces during the year, President Vladimir Putin sought to silence regime criticism from the country's independent media, primarily the media group Media-Most with the TV station NTV. According to Countryaah, the state gas monopoly Gazprom forced ownership of NTV and replaced editors who were critical of Putin's policies, such as the war in Chechnya. Control of NTV's editorial staff was sealed in April by a nightly raid by domestic troops. Journalists who did not cooperate with the new management were excluded. The editorials for a couple of previously independent newspapers were also dismissed, and a court ordered the closure of TV6, one of the last TV stations outside the Kremlin's control, at the end of the year.

2001 RussiaWhen President Putin visited the EU summit in Stockholm in March, he was urged by the EU President, Prime Minister Göran Persson, to find political solutions to the Chechnya conflict. But Putin claimed that Russian war policy against the "terrorists" was the only viable route. However, several human rights organizations condemned during the year the Russian Federation for serious abuse in Chechnya.

2001 Russia

In March, Putin appointed Security Council chief Sergei Ivanov a new defense minister. Like Putin, he has been active in the security service FSB and is regarded as a very loyal Putin supporter, as is Boris Gryzlov, who was appointed Minister of the Interior.

At the end of the year, the three middle parties Unity, Fatherland and the whole of Russia merged to form a party whose main goal was to support President Putin's "constructive policy", as it was said. The party, which was named the Union of Unity and the Fatherland, elected leader of the crisis of crisis Sergei Shujgu, one of Putin's closest allies.

In May, Gazprom's boss was dismissed and replaced by Putin employee Aleksej Miller, who was tasked with reforming the giant company. The old director's tier, with powerful financiers from Boris Yeltsin's presidency, has finally ruled Gazprom, which according to Putin accounts for a quarter of the Russian state budget's revenue.

President Putin met in June at a summit held in Slovenia for the first time his American colleague George W. Bush. The two leaders got good personal contact, but a week after the meeting Putin warned the US to cancel the so-called ABM disarmament agreement.

When Chinese President Jiang Zemin visited Moscow in July, Putin and Zemin jointly demanded that the ABM agreement be preserved, and they warned the United States to develop the new NMD robotic defense, which they believed could trigger a new global race armor.

However, the terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11 changed the tone between the Russian Federation and the United States. The two superpowers approached each other, and despite opposition from their own military leadership, Putin declared that R. would cooperate with the international alliance against terrorism. Putin supported US operations in Afghanistan and agreed that the US used former Soviet air bases in the Central Asian countries. In addition, the Russian Federation increased its arms supplies to the Northern Alliance, which fought the Taliban regime in Afghanistan.

The Russian Federation's relationship with the EU and NATO also improved. At Putin's meeting with EU leaders in Brussels in October, monthly consultations on foreign and defense policy were agreed, and the EU declared its intention to speed up the Russian Federation's membership of the WTO. NATO proposed cooperation in a Russian-North Atlantic Council, and Putin explained that the Russian Federation may re-examine its fierce opposition to NATO's planned eastward enlargement. In return, the West downplayed criticism of the Russian Federation's war in Chechnya. Putin received growing acclaim for his position that the Russian Federation in Chechnya fought the same enemy as the United States fought in Afghanistan, international terrorism.

When Putin and Bush met in the United States in November, they agreed to the disarmament of about two-thirds of the arsenal of nuclear warheads. At the same time, Putin signaled that he was willing to find a solution that would allow the United States to implement its plans for a new robot defense.

Economically, the Russian Federation experienced the best year since the start of the market economy in 1991. In December, the RTS index on the stock exchange had risen 67% since the beginning of the year, making the Russian stock market the world's best during the year. Home consumption increased and export companies were successful. President Putin received praise from economic analysts including for an important land reform and lower income and corporate taxes. However, economic success was largely based on high oil prices, and worries were high over the fall. For every dollar that the price of oil fell, the Russian state lost about $ 1 billion. The Russian Federation was pressured by OPEC and other oil exporters to agree on reduced oil production for 2002, which led to price stabilization at the end of the year.

At the same time as the macroeconomic upswing, the social situation deteriorated. Nearly 17,000 people died in the first half of the year as a result of alcohol consumption - poisoning or overconsumption. Two million people were registered as alcoholics, including about 56,000 children under the age of 14. A large proportion of Russian children were said to suffer from ill health when they quit school, including because of alcoholism and drug abuse, and according to the Russian Children's Fund, over 2.5 million children live on the streets.

In an extensive operation during the autumn, most of the submarine Kursk was salvaged, which the year before went to the bottom of the Barents Sea with 118 men on board.

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