Netherlands. On New Year's Eve, a fire broke out in a
crowded disco in Volendam, probably since Santa Claus
ignited Christmas decorations. A total of eleven young
people perished due to the fire and 180 were injured.
tragedy sparked debate about the safety of public premises,
especially as it turned out that only one emergency exit was
open when the accident occurred.
In March, the first cases of dreaded foot-and-mouth
disease were found in cows and sheep. The government decided
to vaccinate animals, unlike in the United Kingdom where the
disease was first discovered and where mass slaughter was
instead used. The EU banned the export of cloven animals and
In April, violent outbreaks erupted near the village of
Kootwijkerbroek when farmers protested the slaughter that
was being ordered where infected animals were discovered.
Kravall police were forced to take on water cannons,
excavators and dogs to get through barriers. In total, 26
cases of the disease were found in the country before the
danger blew over in July and export restrictions were
lifted. About 265,000 animals were then slaughtered for
In April, the Netherlands became the first in the world
to give gay couples the right to marry under the same
conditions as heterosexuals, even in the case of eg.
adoption and divorce. However, the law only applied to the
nation's citizens. In addition, the Senate finally approved
the law that made the Netherlands the first country in the
world where euthanasia became legal and would start to apply
from the turn of the year. Thus, in practice, what has
already been practiced for decades in the country was
In August, Prime Minister Wim Kok announced that he did
not intend to run for a third term in the 2002 elections.
In 1989, the government adopted a 0.6% increase in
defense spending in 1990 and 91, followed by unchanged
budgets over the following 4 years as well as the withdrawal
of 750 seconded soldiers in West Germany. Dutch politics
raised concerns internally within NATO.
In November 1991, environmental experts from the Third
World issued a report showing that over 40% of the trees in
the Netherlands have been irrevocably damaged by the acid
rain resulting from industrial pollution. A series of
samples of the soil, water and air revealed a very high
level of pollution.
The Netherlands has around 100,000 farms with a total of
120 million cattle. Raising one piece of cattle costs the
country $ 2,000 annually, which is greater than the per
capita income of many third world countries. Another
characteristic of Dutch agriculture is the extensive use of
pesticides - about 20kg per day. hectares per hectare years
- contaminating the underground groundwater reservoirs and
thus threatening the drinking water. At the same time, the
high degree of industrialization and population density have
led to extensive discharge of heavy metals, nitrates and
organic waste in the rivers Maas, the Rhine and the Waal.
Due. The high consumption in Dutch society leaves each
Dutch around 3,000 kg of waste annually. In Amsterdam and
other cities, many apartments are inhabited by people living
alone, which increases the demand for housing. Throughout
the '70's and' 80's, specifically, the youth's response to
the massive housing shortage was to occupy empty houses and
create collectives in them. The Dutch BZ movement - the
"Kraaker" movement - reached its peak of 60-80,000 people.
In the second half of 1991, the Netherlands holds the
presidency of the EU, and the Dutch parliament then calls on
the European heads of state to meet in Maastricht in
December to condemn all forms of racism and to pass
legislation prohibiting xenophobia on the European
continent. Despite this initiative, the country is
characterized by rising racism, although it does not have
the same scale as in other European countries. It caused
heavy blows in Dutch society when a Moroccan girl in the
eyes of 200 people drowned in a lake in a Rotterdam park,
while only 5 tried to save her. In September 93, the
Netherlands chose to follow neighboring Germany's example
and adopted restrictive legislation on the entry of citizens
outside the EU.
Government institutions developed new indicators to cover
the development of the economy and national income, so that
the environmental damage was taken into account. The
country's central statistical office announced in 1992 that
it had adopted a new Green Gross Domestic Product indicator.
It takes into account the use of natural resources in terms
of their ability to regenerate and impact on local
The coalition government's parties suffered a staggering
defeat in the March 1994 local elections, which at the same
time gave the extreme racist right wing a significant boost.
On August 22, Wim Kok assumed the post of Prime Minister.
For the second year in a row, there were failures in the
complicated lock system in 1995, which led to flooding of
significant areas in the country's southern and central