Mozambique. Hundreds of thousands of people were forced
to leave their homes along the Zamezi River following new
floods at the beginning of the year. According to
Countryaah, Mozambique had not yet
recovered from the floods in 2000, which led to a sharp
slowdown in several years of rapid economic growth. In
April, the government announced that growth in 2000 was just
over 2% against the estimated 8%.
However, Mozambique was rewarded for good financial
management by receiving a debt relief of USD 600 million
from the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
Along with other credits and bilateral debt write-off
agreements, Mozambique's foreign debt decreased by 73% to US
$ 1.5 billion.
By the beginning of 98, a cholera epidemic had cost 800
lives. The disease spread especially in the south and in the
central provinces. An UN report from October estimated that
life in Mozambique had dropped to 47 years. This is
primarily due to AIDS. The country is among the 9 most
affected countries in Africa. Without this disease, life
expectancy would have been 64 years.
The renewed trade relations with South Africa enabled
economic growth of 11% in 1999 - one of the highest in the
world. The outlook for 2000 was slightly poorer - below 10%.
FRELIMO won the parliamentary and presidential elections
in December 1999, and Chissano was re-elected president.
RENAMO criticized the government for electoral fraud.
In February 2000, the main lender countries had agreed to
grant Mozambique 1½ years postpay for the payment of its
foreign debt, but after extensive floods in March 2000
affecting the whole country, Germany proposed to cancel the
country's total foreign debt of 1½ billion. dollars. Over 1
million people were displaced and over 200 died as a result
of the disaster.
In November, journalist Carlos Cardoso was murdered. He
was the editor of the independent newspaper Metical and was
in the process of investigating corruption in politics and
business. A few months later, 6 people, including 2
important business executives, were charged with the
killing. The state prosecutor accused the entire legal
system of incompetence, corruption and abuse of power.
The 2001 UNDP Annual Report placed Mozambique in one of
the last places for the Human Development Index (HDI). At
the same time, the country is one of the lowest female
participation in the mass media.
In early 2002, malaria developed epidemically and was the
leading cause of death in the country's hospitals, which
received about 800 patients daily. Some of the largest
hospitals in Maputo had to place two patients in each bed.
In 2002, Frelimo elected independent politician Armando
Guebuza as their candidate for the 2004 presidential
election. Chissano declined to run for the third time. That
same year, two of the accused in the trial of the murder of
journalist Carlos Cardoso stated that President Chissano's
son, Nymphine Chissano, was implicated in the murder of
Cardoso. However, it was rejected by Nymphine. In 2003,
Brazil agreed to build a plant for the production of AIDS
medicine, thus reducing the enormous devastation the disease
causes among the country's population.
In February 2004, Lutheran missionary Doraci Edinger was
murdered in Nampula in the north of the country. He had
already been blackmailed after revealing an active smuggling
ring in human organs in the region in late 2003. A group of
Catholic missionaries had brought similar charges to
Mozambique's Human Rights League. They described how dozens
of children had disappeared from the region and were later
found without a heart, eyes, kidneys or liver. Following the
prosecution, these missionaries had also been subjected to
After conducting tests on 1,600 children in Mozambique,
scientists and pharmaceutical companies were able to present
a possible vaccine against malaria in October. The test was
the largest conducted so far in Africa, and it was to
confirm that the vaccine was safe to use in 1-4 year old
children. The multinational group GlaxoSmithKline declared
that it could have the new vaccine on the market by 2010,
and estimated that the price would be $ 10-20 per year.
dosage. However, at the same time, the group's doctors
determined that it was necessary to conduct further studies
on the effect of the vaccine in the future before it could