Kazakhstan. From 2001 it became possible for private
individuals in Kazakhstan. to buy land. Previously, all land in the
country was state-owned. According to
Countryaah, the new law, which was passed by
Parliament in late 2000, was preceded by political strife.
In March, Kazakhstan's first major oil pipeline was inaugurated,
and it runs from the Caspian Sea via Russia to the Black Sea
coast. The management, which goes from the Tengiz field in
the oil-rich western Kazakhstan, marks the country's breakthrough as
an oil exporter on the world market.
During the year, Kazakhstan's space research institute presented
plans to use satellite technology to predict and thus be
able to fight grasshopper attacks. Every year, the wheat
cultivars of the steppes are haunted by huge swarms that
consume the crop. The plague has worsened in recent years,
among other things. because many peasants can no longer
At the Semipalatinsk in northeastern Kazakhstan in August, the
ten-year anniversary of the closure of the Soviet nuclear
weapons test facility was celebrated. President Nursultan
Nazarbayev then appealed to the outside world for a billion
dollars in financial aid to deal with the environmental and
health consequences of the nuclear weapons tests. The UN
estimates that about 100,000 people from three generations
were suffering from radioactive radiation from the
semipalatine samples. Still born in the area children with
malformations. A 30-meter high monument was inaugurated,
shaped like a silhouette of a mushroom cloud after a nuclear
explosion. Next to the monument stands, among other things.
a white marble sculpture of a woman trying to protect her
child with her own body.
Following the September 9 terrorist attacks in New York,
the United States was offered to use Kazakhstan's airspace, as well
as the country's airports and military bases in the military
offensive against Afghanistan.
In November, President Nazarbayev and Uzbekistan's
President Islam Karimov signed a border agreement that ended
a protracted conflict over the 120-mile border between the
two countries. Only a few minor adjustments remain. Kazakhstan and
Uzbekistan saw the urgency of resolving the border conflict
and strengthening cooperation in the light of the precarious
situation in the region.
At the end of the year, President Nazarbayev felt
threatened by a newly formed political reform movement,
Kazakhstan's democratic alternative, which advocated
political and economic reforms and an independent judiciary.
The president dismissed several ministers and high-ranking
officials who supported the movement and showed signs of
opposition to Nazarbayev's monarchical rule. The president
claimed, without providing any evidence, that two murder
plans against him were revealed during the fall. Political
analysts believed that increasingly bright economic
prospects contributed to growing demands for participation
in political decisions.
According to an economic analysis published in November,
a strong upturn was expected for the oil and gas industry,
which already contributed about 40% of the state's tax