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Europe Ancient History

The oldest traces of modern humans, Homo sapiens sapiens, in Europe are from about 43,000-40,000 BCE. Younger Stone Age grew in Southeastern Europe around 7000 BCE. and in Northern Europe around 3000 BCE. This age was characterized by agriculture and animal husbandry as well as large stone settlements (the megalithic culture) along the coasts of Western Europe.

Western Europe

The Bronze Age of Europe began around 3200 BCE. in Greece and the earliest Iron Age around 1200 BCE, and led to the emergence of small towns in Greek and Phoenician areas on the Mediterranean. Dorers immigrated around 1100 BCE. from northern Greece to Peloponnese and the southeastern Aegean region while Etruscans immigrated from western Asia Minor to Italy.

Traders like the Phoenicians of the Inner Mediterranean founded colonies around 1000 BCE. In the centuries that followed, a number of city states emerged in Greece, including Athens and Sparta, and in Italy (Etruscan cities, Rome).

From the 7th century BCE. overcrowding in Greece led to widespread Greek colonization, especially along the northern Mediterranean coast, in Asia Minor and in the Black Sea. In the latter area, they got in touch with the shooters, a Central Asian people who had immigrated to much of central Russia.

In the 600–400 BCE. dominated cellars in Central Europe. In the same period, Persian conquest attempts to the west were backed by alliances between Greek city-states, and Athenian democracy grew.

Central Europe

The rivalry between Athens and Sparta that triggered the Peloponnesian war led to Macedonia gradually exerting greater influence on Greek soil. It reached the pinnacle of Alexander the Great's kingdom from the Adriatic to Egypt and Indus. After his death in 323 BCE. the kingdom was divided, but Greek culture (Hellenism) in the areas lasted for hundreds of years.

From about 500 BCE. Rome undermined the Etruscan city states and gradually emerged as the greatest power factor in the central and western Mediterranean. The Romans subjugated Spain, Carthage and the Peloponnese, and later Gallic peoples in the north, in present Switzerland, Austria, France and Belgium. The expansion to the north stopped in later Germany with the battle against the Germans in the Teutoburg Forest in year 14, but the Romans humbled themselves and occupied England for about 400 years.


In 380, Christianity became a state religion in the Roman Empire, and the bishop of Rome emerged as the apostle Peter's successor and church leader (pope).

After the peoples' groups of Goths, Huns and Vandals invaded a weakened Roman empire to an increasing degree of dissolution, the Roman Empire was divided into an eastern and a western part in 395. The last West Roman emperor was deposed in 476, but the East Roman Empire centered in Byzantine (Istanbul) resisted Arab and Turkish attacks until Byzant's fall for Turkish attack in 1453.

In the period 700–800, the Arabs conquered the Iberian Peninsula and threatened France. The Arab expansion was halted in the Battle of Poitiers in 732. Under Charlemagne, France became a great power, and in 800 Karl was crowned Roman emperor. In 843, Karl the Great's kingdom was divided, and the eastern part became the origin of the German Empire. In 962 the German-Roman Empire was established.

In much of northern Europe, the period was approximately 800–1050 characterized by Viking kingdoms and Viking trains. Hungary and Poland were founded further south. And the Kiev kingdom covered much of Russia west of the Ural Mountains.

The Normans conquered Anglo-Saxon England in 1066, and in the High Middle Ages (c. 1050 - 1350) the political conditions in Europe stabilized. The new state formation was built on a hierarchical social organization, feudalism, which laid the foundation for a strong royal power and the emergence of nation states. Another important feature was an ever-increasing number of cities and trade between them, and a gradual transition to monetary economics.

The power of the Church at this time and demands for independence from worldly rulers in France and Germany led to the struggle between the princes and the pope (the investiture struggle). The church acted as a cultural spreader (monasteries and universities) and supported the Crusades, which were a territorial expansion into areas of the eastern Mediterranean about 1100–1300. The Crusades initiated the establishment of several knighthoods and an increase in trade between Europe and Asia.

The geographical discoveries of the late 1400s opened new trade routes to Asia, Africa and America, laying the foundations for the creation of Spanish and Portuguese colonies in South and Central America. From the mid-17th century England, the Netherlands and France also became colonial powers.

European Union

Not all countries in Europe are part of the largest economic bloc in the world, the European Union. The economic and political bloc is responsible for the largest export of services, goods and products, representing the free movement of goods, individuals and goods among its members. According to Abbreviationfinder, the EU consists of 28 countries.

European Union

The European Union aims to promote peace, values and the well-being of its citizens; guarantee freedom, security and justice; promote sustainable development aiming at balanced economic growth; fight against social exclusion and discrimination; respect cultural and linguistic diversity among its members.

They are:

  • Germany
  • Austria
  • Belgium
  • Bulgaria
  • Cyprus
  • Croatia
  • Denmark
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia
  • Spain
  • Estonia
  • Finland
  • France
  • Greece
  • Hungary
  • Ireland
  • Italy
  • Latvia
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Malta
  • Netherlands
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • United Kingdom
  • Romania
  • Sweden
  • Czechia
Countries in Europe
  1. European Union
  2. Aland
  3. Albania
  4. Andorra
  5. Austria
  6. Belarus
  7. Belgium
  8. Bosnia and Herzegovina
  9. Bulgaria
  10. Croatia
  11. Czech Republic
  12. Denmark
  13. Estonia
  14. Faroe Islands
  15. Finland
  16. France
  17. Germany
  18. Greece
  19. Hungary
  20. Iceland
  21. Ireland
  22. Italy
  23. Kosovo
  24. Latvia
  25. Liechtenstein
  26. Lithuania
  27. Luxembourg
  28. Malta
  29. Moldova
  30. Monaco
  31. Montenegro
  32. Netherlands
  33. Northern Macedonia
  34. Norway
  35. Poland
  36. Portugal
  37. Romania
  38. Russia
  39. San Marino
  40. Serbia
  41. Slovakia
  42. Slovenia
  43. Spain
  44. Switzerland
  45. Ukraine
  46. United Kingdom
  47. Vatican City

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